The Determinants of Research Utilization: Pain Management in Infants and Children

Start/End Dates: Summer 2000 - Summer 2003

Investigators: Carole A. Estabrooks (PI), Bonnie Stevens (Co-PI), J. Lander, J. Watt-Watson, L. L. O'Brian-Pallas, G. Donner, G. Boschma, Charles Humphrey, Karen Golden-Biddle 

Funders: Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) / National Health Research and Development Program (NHRDP)/ Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research (AHFMR)

Grant Amount: $392,408 & $95,000

Description: Do pediatric nurses have the same obstacles to research utilization that other nurses do? Are there particular aspects of pediatric nursing that make it easier or harder to utilize research? This study used the same design as the adult study, and used the same methods. This data, collected for six months in each of five pediatric units, in addition to the data collected on the adult units, allowed us to compare the adult and pediatric settings, and we were able to make more generalizations about research utilization in hospital settings.

The products of this research program are:

Technical Report:


  • Estabrooks, C.A., Scott, S., Squires, J.E., Stevens, B., O'Brien-Pallas, L., Watt-Watson, J., Profetto-McGrath, J., McGilton, K., Golden-Biddle, K., Lander, J., Donner, G., Boschma,G., Humphrey, CK., Williams, J. (2008) Patterns of research utilization on patient care units. Implementation Science. June 2; 3(1): 31

  • Thompson, D., O’Leary, K., Jensen, E., Scott-Findlay, S., O’Brien-Pallas, L., & Estabrooks, C.A. (2008). The relationship between busyness and research use: It’s about time. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 17(4), 539-548

  • Estabrooks, C.A., Chong, H., Brigidear, K., & Profetto-McGrath, J. (2005). Profiling Canadian nurses' preferred knowledge sources for clinical practice. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, 37(2), 118-141

  • Estabrooks, C.A., Rutakumwa, W., O’Leary, K., Profetto-McGrath, J., Milner, M., Levers, M.J., & Scott-Findlay, S. (2005). Sources of practice knowledge among nurses. Qualitative Health Research, 15(4), 460-476

  • Estabrooks, C.A., Floyd, J.A., Scott-Findlay, S., O’Leary, K.A., & Gushta, M. (2003) Individual determinants of research utilization: a systematic review. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 43(5), 506-520

  • Estabrooks, C.A., O’Leary, K.A., Hesketh, K.L., & Humphrey, C.K. (2003). The Internet and access to evidence: How are nurses positioned? Journal of Advanced Nursing, 42(1), 73-81

  • Profetto-McGrath, J., Hesketh, K.L., Lang, S, & Estabrooks, C.A. (2003). A Study of Critical Thinking and Research Utilization Among Nurses. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 25(3), 322-337

  • Humphrey, C.K., Estabrooks, C.A., Norris, J.R., Smith, J.E.& Hesketh, K.L. (2000, December). Archivist on board: Contributions to the research team. [18 paragraphs]. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung/ Forum: Qualitative Social Research [On-line Journal], 1(3). Available at: