Translations of the English forms of the ACT into other languages are not permitted without prior approval of the copyright holder (Dr Carole Estabrooks.. All translations are required to be undertaken collaboratively with the ACT copyright holder or a designate of her choosing. Dr Estabrooks will retain copyright to all translated forms of the ACT. Where more than one ACT form is requested for translation, only one translation will be approved at a time. Translation of subsequent ACT forms can commence after translation of the preceding ACT form has been approved by Dr Estabrooks. Any costs that are incurred during the translation process are the responsibility of the individuals requesting the translation.

Translation Procedure

Upon consent for translation from the copyright holder the translation process for all ACT forms will follow this systematic procedure:

  1. Forward translation. From the English ACT, translations into the designated second language will be created by two individuals. These individuals will be from, or will be designated by, the project team requesting the translation and will speak and write fluently in the second language. When possible, both individuals should be familiar with the concepts within the ACT, know the setting where the ACT will be administered, and have knowledge and experience in translating and adapting survey instruments. The two forward translations will be undertaken completely independently of one another.
  2. Reconciliation of the forward translations. The two individuals who created the forward translations in step 1 will work together to reconcile their versions.
  3. Back translation. The reconciled second language ACT will be translated back into English by two different individuals from those who created the forward translations in step 1. These individuals will be professional translators and/or will have English as their native language. As in step 1, the two back translations will be prepared independent of each other.
  4. Reconciliation with the project team. The project team responsible for the translation will discuss and come to a consensus on the English translation created in step 3.
  5. Harmonization. The project team will harmonize all versions of the ACT (original ACT, two forward translations and two back translations) .
  6. Reconciliation with the developers. The resulting harmonized version, along with back translations and final consensus documents for each, will be sent to Dr. Estabrooks or her designate for further reconciliation. All comments between the ACT team and the project team will be documented in the ACT Translation Table (provided to the project team). Reconciliation will continue between both parties until a final version of the translated ACT is approved by Dr. Estabrooks or her designate.
  7. Recommended post translation activity. The translated final version of the ACT will be administered to approximately five persons of the target population to uncover difficulties in understanding, interpreting or handling individual items. This step is for language issues only, not for the assessment of respondents’ reactions to the concepts themselves. Any issues that arise during this step will be discussed with the ACT team.